Vertical ladders are mainly required to provide access to mooring facilities and to serve as a means of escape in emergencies. They must continue down to 1.00 m below the lowest anticipated (tidal) water level.
To make the ladders easy to install and replace, the lowest ladder fixing is in the form of a “plug-in” connection. The capping beam is cut back behind the rungs at each ladder recess. In addition, a grab bar (40 mm diameter, 30 cm above quay level, 55 cm behind face of quay wall) must be fitted to all quay walls not liable to flooding.